movies faced three challenges in the 1950s. First, more people were
staying home to watch television instead of going to movie theaters.
Hollywood fought back with some high quality pictures and gimmicks
such as CinemaScope, Cinerama, and other widescreen processes as well
as action and horror movies filmed in 3-D.
The third challenge was the break-up of the studio system during the decade. By 1958, 65 percent of Hollywood movies were being made by independent film companies, often headed by former studio stars.
of the reigning stars of the 30s and 40s continued to top the marquees,
while newcomers such as Marilyn Monroe, Audrey Hepburn, James Dean,
Rock Hudson, Grace Kelly, and rock 'n roller Elvis Presley rose to